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Monthly Archives: April 2013

Phonological Process: Final Consonant Deletion

Phonological Process: Final Consonant DeletionPhonological Process: Final Consonant Deletion


Phonological processes are patterns of speech errors.  These processes are used by children when attempting to produce adult-like speech.  These errors affect entire groups or classes of sounds. Most children demonstrate some of these processes when acquiring language.  While these error patterns are common and at times typical, if they persist past a certain age they become atypical.  Final consonant deletion is a common phonological process.

What is final consonant deletion: 

Final consonant deletion (FCD) is a syllable structure process. It occurs when children leave off the final consonant in a word sound (consonant) in a word. A child might say “co” instead of “coat” or “bea” instead of “beat”.  While final consonant deletion is a common speech error, its effects can reduce a child’s speech intelligibility or how well we understand them.

Should I be concerned if my child is using the process of final consonant deletion?

As with many phonological processes, final consonant deletion is common and is present in many young children’s speech.  Usually this process corrects itself as the child’s speech and language skills become more mature.  In typical development, final consonant deletion is typically eliminated by 3 years of age. After 3 years, your child might leave off the final consonant in a word occasionally, although most of their word endings should sound like the adult version.

If your child continues to demonstrate the phonological process of final consonant deletion beyond 3 years, it is highly recommended that you contact a speech-language pathologist.

If you have concerns with your child’s speech and language skills please contact Samantha at Chicago Speech and More by calling (847) 774-0582 or using the contact us form on the website.

My First Words-Flashcards app for Speech Language Therapy

speech language therapy iPad appMy First Words-Flashcards app for Speech Language Therapy


Are you inundated with iPad apps? With so many apps out there it is hard to know which are worth your time and money. Chicago Speech and More recommends My First Words-Flaschards by Alligator Apps  for helping to improve your child’s expressive vocabulary skills. This app can be a great addition to speech language therapy sessions.

My First Words-Flashcards is available on both the iPad and the iPhone and is a great tool for parents and speech pathologists. The app provides over 200 interactive and colorful flashcards to engage and motivate toddlers. My First Words-Flashcards is split up into a variety of functional, early developing language categories. You can choose to target specific categories such as: accessories, actions, animals, baby things, body, clothing, feelings, food, mommy’s purse, on wheels, shapes and toys.  Where you start depends on your child or client’s language needs.  There are 8 fun and exciting game modes to play. Oh, and just one small thing. It’s Free.

My First Words-Flaschards is a multi-sensory learning tool that can boost any speech language therapy session. In addition to the colorful and engaging graphics, the words are written and spoken with each flashcard. As your child begins to master the various levels, the sound can be switched off to encourage independent language production.  Don’t like something- don’t worry. This app is fully customizable. Don’t like the font? The size of the font? The case of the letters? Change it! You can even delete or add cards within a category.

I have incorporated this app into my speech language therapy sessions and it’s great. Not only do I find this app to be extremely successful, my clients LOVE it.  The little ones enjoy tapping the pictures to see the next flashcard.  With so many categories, my clients never get bored.  I have seen great progress when this app is used as part of a speech language therapy program.  Chicago Speech and More highly recommends My First Words-Flashcards.

What makes My First Words-Flashcards so great is that with just one app, you have hundreds of picture cards spanning a ton of categories at your fingertips.  Say good-bye to lugging (and buying) twenty packs of vocabulary cards and hello to the future of speech therapy.

Chicago Speech and More’s Mother’s Day Vase

Chicago Speech and More's Mother's Day Craft

Chicago Speech and More’s Mother’s Day Vase

Being a mother is one of the toughest jobs out there. Chicago Speech and More knows how special a mom is. While we should be honoring the “mothers” in our lives on a regular basis, Mother’s Day is the perfect opportunity to do so. There is no better way to let your mom, grandma, aunt, step-mom, sister, best friend, family friend, godmother (the list goes on and on), know you are thinking about her than with a home-made mother’s day craft.

I love making holiday crafts and my favorite Mother’s Day project is Chicago Speech and More’s “Mother’s Day Vase”. It is easy, educational, fun and makes a great finished product! All you need is different colored construction paper, scissors, pen/marker and some glue.

Steps for making the Mother’s Day Vase:

  1. Trace a vase on a piece of colored construction paper. Chicago Speech and More recommends using light, spring-like colors for your vase (yellow, purple, pink). Encourage your child to choose and ask for a specific color. “May I haveChicago Speech and More's Mother's Day Vase the yellow vase?” Depending on your child’s age and ability level, either cut the vase out or have your child cut it out themselves. Note: the opening (round part) of the vase can be difficult to navigate with a scissors.
  2.  Glue the vase onto a piece of white construction paper. You can use white card-stock to make it more durable. Work with your children to place the vase in the center. Help them with the glue. Note: a glue-stick works well with this project.
  3. Trace flowers (at least 3) on various colors of construction papeChicago Speech and More's Mother's Day Vaser. Chicago Speech and More recommends using bright colors. Encourage your child to choose and ask for specific colors. “May I have the red, purple and orange flowers?” Depending on your child’s age and ability level, either cut the flowers out for them or have your children cut them out themselves.
  4. Trace circles (at least 3) on yellow construction paper. These will be the Chicago Speech and More's Mother's Day Vasemiddle of your flowers. Depending on your child’s age and ability level, either cut the circles out for them or have your children cut them out themselves. Note: make circles large enough so that your child will be able to write on them (one letter per circle).
  5. Glue the circles in the middle of the flowers. Use vocabulary words such asChicago Speech and More's Mother's Day Vase: middle, center, in, on, first, next, last. Encourage your child to use these words to talk about what they are doing.
  6. Trace “stems” (at least 3) on green construction paper. Cut strips about a ¼ of an inch in width and between 4-6 inChicago Speech and More's Mother's Day Postches in length. Depending on your child’s age and ability level, either cut the stems out for them or have your children cut them out themselves. Note: the size of the strips does not make a huge difference. Make them longer to start and you can always trim down the length after.Chicago Speech and More's Mother's Day Vase
  7. Glue the stems to the back of the flowers. Put the stem up to the center of the flower. Use vocabulary words such as: flower, stem, center, middle, first, next last. Encourage your child to use these words to talk about what they are doing.Chicago Speech and More's Mother's Day Vase
  8. Arrange the flowers in the vase. Discuss the order the flowers should go. Does your child want the red flower to come first, the blue, purple? How about an ABA pattern (red, purple, red)? Note: Remind them that they will be spelling M-O-M out on the flowers so the color order will need to stay.
  9. Glue the flowers. Chicago Speech and More recommends staggering the flowers for a more natural look. Note: it helps to glue the stem to the white construction paper and part of the flower to the vase if possible.Chicago Speech and More's Mother's Day Vase
  10. Help your child write M-O-M on the flowers.
  11. Write a Mother’s Day message on the front of the vase. Depending on the age and ability of your child, help them to create a message. It is usually best to draw lines on the vase to give your child a visual area to write on. If your child isn’t able to write independently but can copy written work, draft the message together, write it on a separate piece of paper and have your child copy it onto the vase. If this is too advanced for your child, have them dictate theChicago Speech and More's Mother's Day Vasemessage to you. Start with “Happy Mother’s Day”. Discuss other items you can enclose in your message. Let your child come up with ideas. Once you have finished your message, explain how we close letters with “love, yours truly, from, etc.”. When the message is complete, have your child read the message back to you. Reading practice plus a language activity- what could be better?
  12. Encourage your child to retell the steps it took to create this master-piece. Work with them to use sequential vocabulary: first, next, then, second, last, finally. Positional vocabulary: on, in, under, first, middle, center, last.

Chicago Speech and More wishes you a very happy Mother’s Day! For more holiday/seasonal language activities please visit archive posts in Sam’s Blog.

Tips for Prodcuing the /f/ Sound by Chicago Speech and More

Chicago Speech and More's tips for producing /f/Tips for Producing /f/


Is your child having trouble making the /f/ sound? If so, here are Chicago Speech and More’s tips for helping teach this sound.  The /f/ sound is actually an *earlier acquired sound with mastery expected around the age of 4 years. Note the *. If your child is having trouble with this sound they are not alone! While it might seem like an “easy” sound, /f/ can actually be quite tricky.

*If your child still has difficulty with /f/ past age 4 it is recommended to seek guidance from a trained and licensed speech-language pathologist. Call Chicago Speech and More at (847) 774-0582*


It doesn’t hurt to practice at home with your little ones. Here are some tips from Chicago Speech and More for helping your child to produce the /f/ sound.

Therapy Hierarchy- Sounds to Conversation


Sound Level                                                                                                                                    

As with most sounds, it’s best to start at the sound level.  Production of /f/ is visual- Yay! Because it is visual it’s easier to teach.  To produce the /f/ sound, rest your front teeth lightly on your lower lip and blow out air.  Work with your child in front of a mirror. Show them how it looks when you make the /f/ sound and have them imitate the action.  To demonstrate airflow, have your child put their hand in front of their mouth when articulating /f/ to feel the air coming through.

Syllable Level                                                                                                                          

Once your child has mastered the ability to produce the /f/ sound move onto the syllable level.  Try adding a vowel to the end or beginning of the sound (“fa, fee, fo, foo”). While most children find it easier to produce syllables when the target sound occurs at the beginning (“fa”), this is not always the case. Some kiddos find it easier to produce the sound at the end of the word (“ef”). Try out both positions to see what works best for your child and work on the one they are most successful with.

Word Level                                                                                                                           

When you child can say syllables move onto the word level.  If it was easier for your child to produce syllables beginning with the target sound, use words beginning with the sound (“fat, fit, foot, feet”).  If your child had more success when the sound occurred in the final position, begin with words ending in /f/ (“ef, beef, loaf” ).  Begin with whichever position your child is more successful with and progress throughout all word positions (initial, medial (bathtub), final). I have found it beneficial to continue using a mirror at this stage.

Phrase/Sentence Level                                                                                                      

Once mastery is achieved at the word level, begin to add these words into phrases and then sentences.  Using carrier phrases such as “The ______” (phrase level) or “I see _____”  or “I want the______” (sentence level) can provide additional opportunities to use the target sound. Try coming up with different carrier phrases. Don’t be afraid to get a little silly with your children.

Paragraph/Short Story Level                                                                                      

Following accurate production at the sentence level, move onto paragraphs. The easiest way to do this is to create a simple story containing the target sound /f/ and have your child retell it back to you. Make sure you use words containing /f/ in all word positions.

Conversation Level                                                                                              

The last step in our hierarchy is to practice the /f/  in conversations.  Although there might be occasional speech sound errors, your child should be producing /f/ correctly most of the time.

Speech Therapy Activities for the /f/ Sound


Let’s face it- kids just want to have fun. Practicing speech sounds is no exception. There are plenty of fun activities to incorporate into your speech therapy.  Here are a few of Chicago Speech and More’s favorites:

  • Picture cards are great and can be used to play memory or go-fish. These games can be used at various levels in our speech therapy hierarchy.  (Word level -child simply labels the card. Phrase level- “the ________”. Sentence Level- “I picked the___________”, “Do you have the ___________”, etc.).
  • If your child is artistic, have them create their own /f/ picture cards.
  • Go through a magazine and cut out different pictures of items that have the /f/ sound in them. Make a collage with the pictures.
  • You can also play games like “I Spy” and find words containing the target sound /f/.

*Click the link below for Chicago Speech and More’s pictures of /f/ in all word positions. (The first link is /f/ in the initial position and the second has /f/ in the medial and final positions). Make 2 copies and cut apart to use in Memory or Go-Fish.

/f/ picture cards (initial word position)

/f/ picture cards (medial and final positions)

The possibilities are endless- just remember to have fun.

For more helpful tips please visit archive posts under Sam’s Blog on Chicago Speech and More’s website.

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